On the European continent it has the highest concentration in Kosovo (over 45%), Albania and Montenegro (both 27%), Bulgaria (23%), Macedonia and Greece (both 21%), Cyprus (20%), Sicily (20%), South Italy (18.5%), Serbia (18%) and Romania (15%). [25] Lisa was of West African ancestry and carried haplogroups E1b1a-Z6020 and H100. More specifically, E-M2 is the predominant subclade in West Africa, Central Africa, Southern Africa, and the region of the African Great Lakes; it also occurs at moderate frequencies in North Africa and Middle East. Within Africa, E-M2 displays a west-to-east as well as a south-to-north clinal distribution. Annu Rev Anthropol 2001; 30: 181207. Roewer L, Kayser M, de Knijff P et al. Although sampling in most NRY studies of sub-Saharan Africa has, in the past, been quite limited in terms of geographic coverage and sample sizes, the distribution of this haplogroup is relatively well described in groups living along both the postulated western and eastern routes of the EBSP, as well as in Senegal29 and Cameroon27, 30 in West Africa. Chapter Hum Genet 1999; 105: 577581. The genetic data are thus in broad agreement with analysis based on linguistic studies, which suggests that the spread of Bantu languages is the consequence of successive dispersals and that a single large-scale migration by Bantu speakers is unlikely.3 It is also consistent with suggestions that differences between eastern and western Bantu languages are a consequence of expansion patterns.3 This interpretation suggests the absence of substantial male-mediated gene flow from East-Central Africa to West-Central Africa during the past millennium, because had it occurred, it would be expected that examples of haplogroup E1b1a8a1a would have been observed in the Congolese groups included in this study. Lazaridis et al. New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1994. [29] Some may have migrated into and introduced the Senegal and Benin sickle cell haplotypes into Basra, Iraq, where both occur equally. This phylogenetic tree of haplogroup subclades is based on the Y-Chromosome Consortium (YCC) 2008 Tree,[76] the ISOGG Y-DNA Haplogroup E Tree,[7] and subsequent published research. (2011) only found one out of 505 tested African subjects who was U175 positive but negative for U209. [5] In Eritrea and most of Ethiopia (excluding the Anuak), E-V38 is usually found in the form of E-M329, which is autochthonous, while E-M2 generally indicates Bantu migratory origins. . The distribution of haplogroup E1b1a8a1* defined by U290 in the absence of U181 with a TMRCA of 14131725 YBP is similar to that of E1b1a8 and may be interpreted in the same way. There is an increasing evidence that the expansion was a more complex process than originally thought and that neither a single demographic event nor an early split between western and eastern groups occurred. A back migration from Asia to sub-Saharan Africa is supported by high-resolution analysis of human Y-chromosome haplotypes. E-V13 has been found as far away as central Siberia, near the Altai, a region also known to have been settled by Bronze Age Indo-Europeans. The American actor and producer Nicolas Cage (born 1964),has been found to belong to haplogroup E1b1b-M84. There is evidence that the Natufians already cultivated cereals like rye before the Neolithic period. The basal E-U175* is extremely rare. They published a joint paper that created a single new tree that all agreed to use. E-M34 is the main Middle Eastern variety of E1b1b and is thought to have arrived with the Proto-Semitic people in the Late Copper to Early Bronze Age. or even E1b1a(not to mention all the mtDNA L lineages found as well). In other words, the frequency of the haplogroup decreases as one moves from western and southern Africa toward the eastern and northern parts of Africa.[30]. The same haplogroups show up in Pre-Pottery Neolithic B Jordan, accompanied by new haplogroups (H2 and T). Z830, M310.1's brother clade, is almost exclusively Middle Eastern. As for E1a (the parent of E1b1b and E1b1a), it seems to have never left Africa at all. Diversity (h) of E1b1a was calculated at the five component-haplogroup level ranged from 0.379 to 0.753, excluding the Anuak (h=0). The authors declare no conflict of interest. The expansion of the Bantu-speaking people (EBSP) during the past 3000-5000 years is an event of great importance in the history of humanity. The study revealed that he belonged to haplogroup E1b1b1. E1b1a1 is defined by markers DYS271/M2/SY81, M291, P1/PN1, P189, P293, V43, and V95. M310.1 itself dates from the Late Paleolithic and could have come to Italy via Anatolia and Greece any time between the Late Glacial period and the Iron Age, including with Neolithic farmers, the Minoans, or the Etruscans. If that is the case, E-M78 or E-M123 could have come to southern Europe through North African cattle herders during the Neolithic, although this hypothesis remains purely conjectural. Behar DM, Thomas MG, Skorecki K et al. L2 has five main subhaplogroups: L2a, L2b, L2c, L2d and L2e. Pereira L, Macaulay V, Torroni A, Scozzari R, Prata MJ, Amorim A : Prehistoric and historic traces in the mtDNA of Mozambique: insights into the Bantu expansions and the slave trade. Future studies that examine variation in the NRY E1b1a clade in Bantu-speaking population groups representing the East African coast will help to further elucidate the late eastern EBSP. E1b1a, on the other hand, is said to have never left Africa but was reported in 6% of Natufian samples. The geographic distribution of the six main branches show that E-V13 quickly spread to all parts of Europe, but was especially common in Central Europe. In this study, we analysed unique event polymorphism and short tandem repeat variation in non-recombining Y-chromosome haplogroups contained within the E1b1a haplogroup, which is exclusive to individuals of recent African ancestry, in a large, geographically widely distributed, set of sub-Saharan Africans (groups=43, n=2757), all of whom, except one Nilo-Saharan-speaking group, spoke a Niger-Congo language and most a Bantu tongue. Buccal swabs were collected from males >18 years old unrelated at the paternal grandfather level but otherwise randomly selected from 43 groups across sub-Saharan Africa (Supplementary Table S1, samples from Ghana, Nigeria and Cameroon were included in Veeramah et al (2010)35 and from South Africa in Thomas et al (2000)36). For other uses, see. Little genetic differentiation as assessed by uniparental markers in the presence of substantial language variation in peoples of the Cross River region of Nigeria. [30] Three South Africans tested positive for this marker. They further observe that the lack of genetic data makes it premature to reach sweeping conclusions concerning the EBSP. Sectors in pie charts are coloured according to the haplogroup colour code to the left. As the EBSP shows a clearer genetic legacy in the paternally inherited genetic system compared with mtDNA (evident from high and similar frequencies of E1b1a) in sub-Saharan Africa,32 it is possible that, as suggested by de Filippo et al,31 fine-scale E1b1a typing of Bantu-speaking communities throughout sub-Saharan Africa may add more structure to the geographic distribution of haplogroups. Whether these E-M78 samples came with Neolithic farmers from the Near East or were already present among Mesolithic Europeans is unclear at present. The French footballer of Algerian origin Zinedine Zidane (born 1972), is a member of haplogroup E1b1b (M81) according to his brother's DNA test. [67] The place of origin and age is unreported. The descendants of L791, Y2947 and Y4971, only appeared around 3500 BCE, during the Late Neolithic or Chalcolithic period. CAS L791 and Z21466 have a mostly European distribution today and their ages point toward a Neolithic diffusion. The control region of the mtDNA sequence, due to its high mutation rate, has been extensively used in examining the impact of EBSP on the genetic landscape of sub-Saharan Africa.5, 17, 18, 19 It has been postulated that some mtDNA haplogroups (eg, L3b, L3e and L2a), based on their distribution in sub-Saharan Africa, are associated with the EBSP, whereas the presence of haplogroup L1c at high frequency in some populations on the western route is thought to be the result of assimilation of local female hunter gatherers.17 It has been suggested that because agriculturist men are more likely to marry local women rather than vice versa,15, 16 the maternal genetic profile of Bantu-speaking groups is marked by considerable diversity. We thank all DNA donors and those assisting in sample collection and Professor Mark Thomas and Dr Krishna Veeramah for their support with typing and helpful comments and suggestions on the manuscript. Populations in Northwest Africa, central Eastern Africa and Madagascar have tested at more moderate frequencies. Wairak people in Tanzania tested 4.6% (2/43) positive for E-M10. The probability of observing a particular haplotype, if present, in a randomly collected set was assessed by the equation (1q)n=(1P), where P is the probability of observing the haplotype, q is the minimum frequency of the haplotype to be observed and n is the number of chromosomes. Sociological data were also collected from most individuals, including age, current residence, birthplace, self-declared cultural identity, first language, second language and (when available) religion of the individual, as well as similar information on the individuals father, mother, paternal grandfather and maternal grandmother. So I was wondering if such a marker has anything to do with the Natufian Neolithic culture of the Levant as some of the skulls associated with this particular culture have been described as Sub-Saharan-like. Gurdeep Matharu Lall, Maarten H. D. Larmuseau, Mark A. Jobling, Sandra Oliveira, Alexander Hbner, Jorge Rocha, Daniel E. Platt, Hovig Artinian, Pierre Zalloua, Mugdha Singh, Anujit Sarkar & Madhusudan R. Nandineni, Hovhannes Sahakyan, Ashot Margaryan, Richard Villems, Enrico Macholdt, Leonardo Arias, Mark Stoneking, Kenneth K. Kidd, Baigalmaa Evsanaa, Andrew J. Pakstis, Veronika Csky, Dniel Gerber, Anna Szcsnyi-Nagy, European Journal of Human Genetics Although it is generally accepted that the EBSP has its origin in the so-called Bantu Homeland situated in the area of the border between Nigeria and the Grassfields of Cameroon, and that it followed both western and eastern routes, much less is known about the number and dates of those expansions, if more than one. The Moors also conquered Sicily. Considering the Y haplogroup composition in our Dominican sample, we can note that the clades frequently observed in the Sahel are usually rare or absent. To make things clearer; Although the battery of the NRY markers typed in UEP kits gives a relatively crude resolution of NRY haplogroups, the typing of four UEP markers within E1b1a considerably increases the resolution of NRY types associated with EBSP.32. Brief thoughts on the likelihood of finding samples of E1b1a in the Levant._________SOURCES:[0:46] The relevant FaceBook thread:https://www.facebook.com/groups/israelitejews/permalink/724232359236083/[1:04] Past threads in which this was discussed:- https://www.facebook.com/groups/g49resource/posts/5410422012382894/- https://www.facebook.com/groups/thebiblicalrumbleroom/posts/1308376896600227[1:10] Scaled Innovations SNP tracker:http://scaledinnovation.com/gg/snpTracker.html[3:46] https://haplotree.info/maps/ancient_dna/slideshow_samples.php?searchcolumn=Country\u0026searchfor=Israel\u0026ybp=500000,0\u0026orderby=Y_Haplotree_Variant\u0026ascdesc=ASC[3:52] https://haplotree.info/maps/ancient_dna/slideshow_samples.php?searchcolumn=Country\u0026searchfor=Lebanon\u0026ybp=500000,0\u0026orderby=Y_Haplotree_Variant\u0026ascdesc=ASC E-V38 joins the West African-affiliated E-M2 and the Northeast African-affiliated E-M329 with an earlier common ancestor who, like E-P2, may have also originated in East Africa. Later, a group of citizen scientists with an interest in population genetics and genetic genealogy formed a working group to create an amateur tree aiming at being above all timely. The TMRCA was estimated using an average NRY STR mutation rate of 0.00245 and generation time of 25 years. But the history of the region is so complex that there might be many separate branches of E-V13 that each came with a different invasion (e.g. Anthropology, archaeology, linguistics and, in recent decades, genetics have been used to elucidate some of the events and processes involved. The K257 and Y4970 branch emerged around 3000 BCE and is found in Iran, Armenia, Turkey, Russia, Greece, Italy and France, among others. Edmonds CA, Lillie AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL : Mutations arising in the wave front of an expanding population. E1b1b used to be E3b, but always is E-M215 or E-M35. (2022) analysed the DNA of the remains of John Corvinus and his son Christopher Corvinus, the two last members of the Hunyadi family. John's father, Matthias Corvinus (1443-1490) was King of Hungary and Croatia, and disputed King of Bohemia and Duke of Austria. The merits of this hypothesis is that it would explain why M81 is so much more common in the Maghreb, and particularly in Tunisia, than in Italy today. Pereira L, Gusmao L, Alves C et al. Further support for the EBSP origin from the Nigeria/Cameroon area comes from the observation that E1b1a component-haplogroup STR diversities are greater in West Africa than in either West-Central or East-Central Africa (Table 2). [e], E1b1a1a1h is defined by markers P268 and P269. Montano et al. Holden CJ : Bantu language trees reflect the spread of farming across sub-Saharan Africa: a maximum-parsimony analysis. [13][14], Hawass et al. [20], At Cabeo da Amoreira, in Portugal, an enslaved West African man, who may have been from the Senegambian coastal region of Gambia, Mauritania, or Senegal, and carried haplogroups E1b1a and L3b1a, was buried among shell middens between the 16th century CE and the 18th century CE. Because the Bantu languages on the eastern route are more homogeneous than those on the western route,11 it is reasonable to speculate that later expansions occurred mainly on the eastern route. Therefore both hypotheses are plausible. M81 has two immediate subclades A5604 and M183 (aka PF2477 or PF2546). Distribution of haplogroup E-M81 in Europe, the Middle East & North Africa. Here, to test the hypothesis that . The distribution of haplogroup E1b1a8a1a (defined by U181) with a very recent TMRCA of only 11001638 YBP is very different, however, being restricted to Nigeria and the east side of sub-Saharan Africa (Figure 2). E-M2 is especially common among indigenous Africans who speak Niger-Congo languages, and was spread to Southern Africa and East Africa through the Bantu expansion. Evol Bioinform Online 2005; 1: 4750. This indicates that a single man may have had nine sons who went on to have numerous children of their own. E1b1a (also known as E-M2) forms part of the E-V38 haplogroup found on the human Y chromosome - making it a paternally inherited clade. The Goths settled over all the Italian peninsula. [29] West Africans, bearing the Benin sickle cell haplotype, may have migrated into the northern region of Iraq (69.5%), Jordan (80%), Lebanon (73%), Oman (52.1%), and Egypt (80.8%). L576 forms a subclade immediately after the previously mentioned SNPs. [12][d], E1b1a1a1c is defined by private marker M149. One of them was E-M34 (notably Levantine clades like Y15558 and Z21421), which makes up about 15% of modern Lebanese Y-DNA, but was probably higher before the Greek, Roman, Arabic, Byzantine, medieval crusader and Ottoman occupations altered the local gene pool. Some of these SNPs have little or no published population data and/or have yet to receive nomenclature recognition by the YCC. The biggest genetic impact of the Romans/Italians outside of Italy appears to have been in Gaul (modern France, Belgium, southern Germany and Switzerland), probably because this was the closest region to Italy using the well-developed Roman road network (actually inherited from the Gauls themselves). A new method for the evaluation of matches in non-recombining genomes: application to Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes in European males. Mol Biol Evol 2006; 23: 482490. Haplotype diversity, h, and its SE were estimated from unbiased formulae of Nei41 and was performed using Arlequin software version 3.0.42 Average squared difference (ASD) in STR allele size between all chromosomes and the presumed ancestral haplotype (assumed to be the modal haplotype), averaged over loci, were estimated using YTIME software,43 and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated as described in Thomas et al44 using the R environment of statistical computing (www.R-project.org). This page was last modified 01:24, 7 January 2020. In this study, we analyse, as did Alves et al,33 both UEP and short tandem repeat (STR) (in this study restricted to NRY) to show that geographic frequency distributions and the time to the most recent common ancestors (TMRCAs) of haplogroups, comprising haplogroup E1b1a in 43 sub-Saharan African groups (n=2757) with diverse linguistic affiliations (Supplementary Figure S1), reveal multiple waves of expansion from West Africa, with a late expansion along the eastern route but not the western. Or it may have left Africa and became E1b1b after admixture with West Asians. The Dorians from Central Europe followed from c. 1200 BCE. Bantu and European Y-lineages in sub-Saharan Africa. Research Department of Genetics, The Centre for Genetic Anthropology, Evolution and Environment, University College London, London, UK, Naser Ansari Pour,Christopher A Plaster&Neil Bradman, You can also search for this author in Beleza S, Gusmao L, Amorim A et al. Each of these two lineages has a peculiar geographic distribution. His brother is the producer, director and actor Richard Attenborough (b. These are the mutations, "M", or mutation 2 = M2. The EBSP six-STR haplotype was modal in 36 out of the 43 groups (see Supplementary Table S3) and was almost always a member of E1b1a8 (frequency of 96.4%, P<0.0001). This origin is in line with the origins of the ancient Israelite people, from whom Jews are traditionally believed to descend from, and whose homeland was the ancient Kingdom of Israel now the modern day State of Israel, located in the Levant. The finer branches of the genealogical tree were associated with lower estimates of TMRCA (Figure 1). The M81 clade is defined by 150 other mutations beside M81 itself. E1b1a1a1a is defined by marker M58. View Profile View Forum Posts . They would have brought typically Germanic lineages like I1 and R1b-U106, but also the Proto-Slavic R1a-CTS1211, which is now found uniformly in 1 to 2% of the population. Thomas MG, Parfitt T, Weiss DA et al. Late glacial migration of E-M78 to Mediterranean Europe It is still unclear when haplogroup E first entered Europe. Gjergj Kastrioti Sknderbe, also known as Skanderbeg (1405-1468), was an Albanian feudal lord and military commander who led a rebellion against the Ottoman Empire in what is today Albania, North Macedonia, Greece, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. . E1b1a1a1f is defined by L485. Haplogroup E-M2, also known as E1b1a1-M2, is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. These branches split from one another around 47,500 years ago in the horn of Africa, followed by the emergence of prominent SNP mutation E-M2 which gained footing there. and Ancient East, West and North Germanics had different Y-DNA lineages). It has been hypothesized that E1b1a, including its subbranch E1b1a7 (defined by M191, and not tested in the present study), arose in west Central Africa and was later taken southward through a demic expansion ( Cruciani et al. The weak point of this hypothesis is that it doesn't explain how M81 reached places like France, Britain, Greece or Turkey, nor even northern Spain. Salas A, Richards M, De la FT et al. Y chromosomes traveling south: the cohen modal haplotype and the origins of the Lemba the Black Jews of Southern Africa. Both of them carried the Y-chromosome haplogroup is E1b1b1a1b1a6a1c (E-V13 > CTS12223 > BY3880 > E5017 > CTS9320 > Z17264 > PH1173). The early development of agriculture triggered significant population growth, resulting in the expansion of early farming populations, along with the spread of language families in many parts of the world, including Africa.1 The many advantages of agricultural subsistence over foraging is a likely contributing factor to the rapid expansion of agriculturists and their languages during the holocene.2 A well-known example of this phenomenon in Africa is the expansion of the Bantu-speaking people (EBSP), which is thought, on the basis of linguistic evidence, to have started around 5000 years ago3 in the region on the border between modern day eastern Nigeria and Cameroon.4 It is widely accepted that there was an early split into eastern and western routes in which farmers first expanded east and also, within 1500 years, reached West-Central Africa. 2002 ). F1382 appears to have expanded during the Iron Age from the Levant to the Arabian peninsula, where it is almost exclusively found today. "E3a" redirects here. volume21,pages 423429 (2013)Cite this article. Karafet TM, Mendez FL, Meilerman MB, Underhill PA, Zegura SL, Hammer MF : New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree. (2002) states: "A possible explanation might be that haplotype 24 chromosomes [E-M2*] were already present across the Sudanese belt when the M191 mutation, which defines haplotype 22, arose in central western Africa. In this scenario, M81 could have been the lineage of Carthaginian kings, or of a particularly prolific aristocratic familiy during the Carthaginian Republic. Nature 1998; 394: 138140. Abingdon: Garland Science, 2004. Ethiopia/Sudan, and the Levant. [25] Zimbu was of western Central African ancestry and carried haplogroups E1b1a-CTS5497 and L3e1e. 2018). . He is best remembered for being a strong defender of slavery. This suggests that E1b1b may indeed have appeared in East Africa, then expanded north until the Levant. Haplogroup E1b1a is an ancient brother to E1b1b, but has left a completely different fingerprint on the world today. Also in favor of E1b1b-V22 is the fact that E1b1a occurs in 2% of Egyptians, while E1b1b-V22 occurs in 15% of north Egyptians, 5% in Egyptians from several oasis to the west of the Nile, and 4% in south Egyptians. Bellwood P : Early agriculturalist population diasporas? Examples of founder effects include E-V12 in southern Egypt, E-V13 in the Balkans, E-V32 in Somalia, E-V65 on the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and E-M81 in Northwest Africa. The highest frequencies of E-M123 are observed in Jordan (31% near the Dead Sea), Ethiopia (5-20%), Israel/Palestine (10-12% among the Palestinians and the Jews), among the Bedouins (8%), in Lebanon (5%), in North Africa (3-5%), Anatolia (3-6%) and southern Europe, particularly Italy (1 to 8%), in the Spanish region of Extremadura (4%), and the Balearic islands of Ibiza and Minorca (average 10%). Whilst E1b1a reaches its highest frequency of 81% in Senegal, only 1 of the 139 Senegalese that were tested showed M191/P86. The discovery of two SNPs (V38 and V100) by Trombetta et al. [13][14], At Kindoki, in the Democratic Republic of Congo, there were three individuals, dated to the protohistoric period (230 BP, 150 BP, 230 BP); one carried haplogroups E1b1a1a1d1a2 (E-CTS99, E-CTS99) and L1c3a1b, another carried haplogroup E (E-M96, E-PF1620), and the last carried haplogroups R1b1 (R-P25 1, R-M415) and L0a1b1a1. 3500-1150 BCE) was a formative period in the Southern Levant, a region that includes present-day Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, the Palestinian Authority, and southwest Syria. [26] West Africans (e.g., Mende of Sierra Leone), bearing the Senegal sickle cell haplotype,[29][26] may have migrated into Mauritania (77% modern rate of occurrence) and Senegal (100%); they may also have migrated across the Sahara, into North Africa, and from North Africa, into Southern Europe, Turkey, and a region near northern Iraq and southern Turkey. Cruciani F, Santolamazza P, Shen P et al. E1b1a1 is defined by markers DYS271/M2/SY81, M291, P1/PN1, P189, P293, V43, and V95. Thomas MG, Skorecki K, Ben Ami H, Parfitt T, Bradman N, Goldstein DB : Origins of old testament priests. The expansion of the Bantu-speaking people (EBSP) during the past 30005000 years is an event of great importance in the history of humanity. the migration of a small group of settlers carrying among whom one paternal lineage was much more common than any others. It would then have spread to Greece and Italy alongside haplogroup J2a1 and T1a-P77. Sir David Attenborough (b. E1b1a1a1b is defined by M116.2, a private marker. There are at least three distinct sources of E-V13 in Italy. The making of the African mtDNA landscape. Mutation rates at Y chromosome specific microsatellites. Nurse D : Bantu languages; in Brown K, (ed): Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics. Therefore this lineage could actually have emerged a few centuries earlier, during the Phoenician/Carthaginian period. Distribution of haplogroup E-M123 in Europe, the Middle East & North Africa. One of his patrilineal descendants was identified as a member of haplogroup E-V13 > Z17107. The ancient Greeks contributed to the rediffusion of more E-M34 (and E-V13) around places such as Cyprus, Sicily, southern Italy, Liguria, Provence, eastern Spain, and basically all part of the Classical ancient Greek world. Note the resemblance between the distribution of E-M81 and the African admixture from the Dodecad project. [9] Brucato et al. However, Razib Khan in this podcast says that E1b1a was pretty common among ancient Levantines. wiki: E-V22 Concentrated in Northeast Africa and the Near East. It might be linked to the expansion of the Kura-Araxes culture from the southern Caucasus to Anatolia and Iran. Archaeological evidence suggests that the early expansion of proto-Bantu speakers was associated with pre-Iron Age farming technology and did not involve smelting metals.3 The first evidence of metallurgy south of the Sahara was found at Nok in Nigeria and is dated to no earlier than 2500 YBP.10 Therefore, it is possible that with the aid of the new technology, further expansions may have occurred after the first dispersal of farmers. (2012) determined that the mummy of an unknown man buried with Ramesses was, because of the proven genetic relationship and a mummification process that suggested punishment, a good candidate for the pharaoh's son, Pentaweret, who was the only son to revolt against his father. [2] E-M329 is also frequent in Southwestern Ethiopia, especially among Omotic -speaking populations. je commence la nuit, je finis le matin reponse, multifamily construction costs 2021, mike johnson steel guitar credits,
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e1b1a in the levant 2023